23 Aralık 2010 Perşembe

Religious and Political Fragmentation in the Islamic World

Abbasid Revolution 749-50
Al-Andalus: first breakaway province: Umayyad state

Political fragmentation of the Islamic world in the 9th c.

Khariji movement:
-begins with opposition to ‘Ali regarding the decision to arbitrate over the punishment of ‘Uthman’s assassins
-responsible for the assassination of ‘Ali in 661
-first definite dissent and division in the Islamic community
(kharijis: “those who went out”)
-emphasis on egalitarian and morally puritannical leadership

Ibadi movement:
-later development from the Kharijis
-formed groups of opposition to the Abbasids in N. Africa among native Berber people
Rustamid dynasty (761-909)
-anti-Abbasid independent state
-conceived as a “correction” to past and present Islamic states

Sect: a dissenting or schismatic religious group, sometimes considered extreme or heretical by opponents… (sectarian, sectarianism)
Shi‘a: party or faction
Shi‘at ‘Ali: party (supporters) of ‘Ali and ‘Alids
Shi‘i: a member of Shi‘at ‘Ali
‘Alid: a descendent of ‘Ali

Genealogy of the Shi‘i imamate

Principles of the Shi‘i imamate as developed in the 8th c.:


-sovereign in religious and political terms

-keeper of authority and secret knowledge for the interpretation of the Qur’an, hadith, law

-free from sin and error (infallibility)

-explicity designated by his predecessor (nass)

-a necessary institution

Divisions within Shi’ism:

- “Fiver” / Zaydi
- “Sevener”/Isma‘ili
- “Twelver” / Imami

-‘Ubayd Allah claims to be the manifestation (zuhur) of the Hidden Imam :took the title al-Mahdi
-909: Declaration of the Fatimid Caliphate (title: amir al-mu’minin) in N. Africa: ideological and military challenge to the Abbasids
-969: Conquest of Egypt