23 Aralık 2010 Perşembe

The Caliphate: From Medina to Damascus and Bagdad

Succession to the leadership of the Prophet Muhammad (632)
—possible choices:
- ‘Ali (cousin and son-in-law) ?
-Ansar (supporters from Medina) ?
-Muhajirun (emigrants from Mecca) ?

The Rightly-Guided Caliphs (“Rashidun”):

Abu Bakr (632-34)
‘Umar (634-44)
‘Uthman (644-56)
‘Ali (656-61)

imam = supreme leader of the Muslim community (umma)
imama = supreme leadership, imamate

khalifa (“deputy”) = caliph
khilafa = caliphate
amir al-mu’minin (“commander of the faithful”) = caliph

misr / amsar (garrison town/s): Kufa, Basra, Fustat, Kairawan

diwan: register of Arab soldiers
sabiqa: social priority based on the time of conversion to Islam, used to determine salaries of soldiers, etc.

ahl al-dhimma: “protected people” (Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians) living in conquered lands
dhimmi: a member of the ahl al-dhimma
jizya: poll tax on dhimmis

mawla (pl. mawali): non-Arab (Muslim) clients of Arab tribes

First Civil War (656-661)

-Assassination of ‘Uthman after an uprising in Kufa (656)
-‘Ali became 4th caliph

-Unresolved issue of the punishment of ‘Uthman’s assassins fueled the First Civil War

- ‘Ali challenged by Mu’awiya (governor of Syria)

‘Ali agreed to arbitration on issue of punishment

- Assassination of ‘Ali (661); Mu’awiya became caliph

-governor of Syria
-member of Banu Umayya clan
-became caliph in 661
-established the Umayyad Caliphate (661-750)

Umayyad Caliphate (661-750)
-capital: Damascus

‘Abd al-Malik (r. 685-705):

-ended the Second Civil War in 692 by force

-administrative reforms to create a centralized empire
-Arabic as official language

-monetary reforms

-establishment of a state with all necessary institutions

‘Abd al-Malik’s monetary reform:
-central issues
-standard weight
-inscriptions instead of images

Dinar (gold coin): 696-7
Dirham (silver coin): 698-9

Dome of the Rock (Jerusalem), built in 691-2 on the site of the old Jewish Temple (destroyed prior to Islam)

Caliph al-Walid I (r. 705-15)
Conquest of Central Asia
Conquest of Spain

Great Mosque of Damascus, begun 705/6 by Caliph al-Walid I (r. 705-15)

Problems faced by the Umayyads in the 8th c.:
1. Dissatisfaction of the Shi’is regarding the basis of Umayyad power (believed to be illegitimate)
2. Resentment against Syria from the provinces
Resentment against Arabs by non-Arabs

749: Abbasid Revolution (led by descendents of the Prophet’s uncle ‘Abbas)
750: Establishment of Abbasid Caliphate
-new capital established by caliph al- Mansur-- Baghdad