30 Aralık 2010 Perşembe


       6th to 15th centuries, political and religious diversity
       Small kingdoms and military aristocracies,
       RAJPUTS and autonomous villages
       Scholasticism and ritualistic religion
       8th century Abbasid invasion from the north
       Central Asian Islam penetrates via raids & sufism

Afghano-Turkic Islamic Raids in the 1000s
       Turks, Afghans, Persians and Mongols entered into India, most prominently from Ghazni (today in Afghanistan)with Mahmud of Ghazni (998-1030) making the Punjabi region a gateway to Islam
       North Indians, low-caste Hindus and Buddhists converted

The Delhi Sultanate
       The first Muslim state 1206 in Delhi by Qutb-ud-din Aybak constantly expanding and contracting
       Mixing very well with the indidgenous populaces
       Divided into 5 dynasties : the Tughluqs were crushed by Timur from Samarkand (1398-99) desolating the entire sultanate but the last dynasty (Lodis) nonetheless survived until 1526
       The Delhi Sultanate : saving South Asia from the Empire of Cengiz Khan but establishing a stronger Mongol legacy together with Islam