9 Aralık 2010 Perşembe

Medieval European Politics: Popes and Bishops


Definition: “Father” in Greek, or, Papa
Head of the Catholic Church, one of the oldest institutions on earth.
Ruler of the independent mini-state of the Vatican.
Apostolic succession: Vicar of St. Peter. Vicar of Christ. Roman Pontiff.
First used in A.D. 495.

Donation of Constantine

Carried out by secret ballot by a full vote of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
Election takes place in the Sistine Chapel.
Cardinals meet in “conclave” (cum clavi)

Political Power of The Papacy

Emblem of The Papacy

Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem
Council of Chalcedon (451)

The Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
Primus Inter Pares in the Eastern Orthodox Faith
Seen by followers as the One, Holy, and Apostolic Church

Papal Infallibility
The Pope must be speaking as the Roman Pontiff that is the heir of St. Peter.
He must be speaking ex cathedra “that is in the discharge of his office as a shepherd and teacher of all Christians, and by virtue of his apostolic authority...”
He must clearly state that whoever opposes this ruling will be excommunicated.
He must be speaking of a matter of faith or morals.
His declaration must be made for the whole church.