18 Ekim 2010 Pazartesi

The Greek Civilization

1. Bronze-age civilizations
(2000 B.C- 12th century B.C. )

2. ‘The Dark Ages’
(12th century B.C.-8th century B.C.)

3. Classical Greek civilization
(8th century B.C- 4rd century B.C.)

4. Hellenistic world
(323 B.C.- 30 B.C.)

2) "The Dark Ages" (12th-8th Centuries BC)

Urban decline and depopulation
Fewer international contacts and less trade
Simpler state structure
No writing
Art with simpler designs
 

 Byzantine Manuscript
of Homer's Iliad














3) Classical Greek Civilization (8th-4th Centuries BC)

Changes After the Dark Ages and Their Contribution to Greek Democracy
The rise of POLIS (POLIS)
The rise of hoplite phalanx
The rise of colonies and commercial expansion (accompanied by the rise of writing, and changes in art and architecture)
 
Athens Before 'Democracy'
-Council of elders
-Executive officials (archons)
-People’s assembly








Pictures below show the influence of Greek art in Egypt


 













Athenian Move Towards 'Democracy'
Solon’s reforms after 600 B.C.
Easing the burdens of debts on farmers
giving citizenship rights to foreign merchants and artisans
people’s assembly being opened to the poor, and rise in its powers
Cleisthenes’ reforms after 500 B.C.
making people’s assembly as the sole source of power
 
Athenian Democracy
The Assembly
The Council of 500
The Courts

Greco-Persian Wars

Achaemenid Empire (550-330 BC)















1.INVASION OF DARIUS (Dariyush)
Battle of Marathon (490 B.C.)

2. INVASION OF XERXES (Shayarsha)
Thermopylae victory for Greeks
  (480 B.C.)

Significance: uniting Greeks

 Polykleitos,
Disk-holder
5th Century BC
 Myron
Disk-thrower
5th century BC


Praxieteles, Venus 
4th Century BC















The Peloponnesian Wars (431-404 BC)

Peloponnesian League vs. Delian League
















4) Hellenistic World (323-30 BC)




 











Alexander's Dream?
 Mural from
Pompei, Italy

Pierre Narcisse
Guérin











Hellenistic World and its Difference from Classical Greece

Political structure
Economy and trade
Urban life
Culture and arts
 
 Euclid's elements
        Hipparchus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

17 Ekim 2010 Pazar

The Mycenaean Period (1500-1200 BC)

Mycenaean Palatial Architecture






















Argolid:
Mycenae, Tiryns
Messenia:
Pylos
Boeotia:
Thebes, Gla
Orchomenos (?)
Laconia:
Menelaion (?)
Attica:
Athens (?)
Thessaly:
Eleusis, Iolkos (?)

Mycanae Aerial Views of the Citadel














Mycanae Citadel Plan












Mycenae Megaron Complex
















Mycenaean Frescoes
Women Procession Fresco from Thebes







Compare it with the Minoan Fresco below












Compare the lyre player fresco from Mycenae with the Minoan bird fresco















Mycenaean Frescoes depicting combat scenes











Eastern Mediterranean Trade During the Late Bronze Age

Uluburun Shipwreck Site Plan

















Origins of Artifacts from Uluburun Shipwreck

Neopalatial (Minoan) Period in Crete (1700-1430 BC)

Palace Sites in Crete during Neopalatial Period

Chania, Knossos, Phaistos, Malla, Zakros










KNOSSOS SITE PLAN














Plan of Knossos Palace



















Minoan Frescoes
From the island of Thera:
















Delta Complex Room 2 Spring Fresco



















Xeste 3 Room 3 Mistress of Animals Fresco












Toreador (Bull Leaping) Fresco from Knossos Palace











Another Bull Leaping Fresco from the Palace at Tell el Dab'a, Egypt
(Pay attention to how similar they are in terms of content)








The Shaft Graves Period on Mainland Greece (1700-1500 BC)

From Mycenae in the northeast of Peloponnesia













Map of Mycenae with Grave Circles B and A
















Gold Face Masks from Grave Circle A














Gold Foil Body Cover of a Child




















Niello Daggers with Lion Hunt and Lion Hunting Scenes








Combat Scenes on Signet Rings














Metal Vessels