7 Ekim 2010 Perşembe

From Prehistory to History 1: Agricultural Transformation and First Permanent Settlements

Homo Sapiens
Neolithic Quaternary
Pleistocene, Holocene
Mobile hunters and gatherers
Göbekli Tepe
Domesticated species
Permanent settlements
Nevali Çori
When and where do we have traces of early hominids in Turkey?
Yarımburgaz cave site excavations
      Oldawan type choppers
Traditional Terminology for Chronology
Palaeolithic (Old Stone Age)
Neolithic (New Stone Age)
Bronze Age
Iron Age
Three Age System developed by C. J. Thomsen to classify collections in the National Museum of Denmark in early 19th c. (1816-19)
What are the problems?
Alternative Terminology: World Wide Climate Change
Quaternary Period :  Last geological period in the history of the planet which includes both 
1) Pleistocene (1.6 million-10 B.P.) Great Ice Age
2) Holocene (10.000 B.P.- present) Post-Glacial Period
Hallan Çemi ca. 10.000 BC
Similar to earliest phase of Çayönü, discovered in the 1990’s
Round structures
Purely hunting gathering village
Beginnings of pig domestication in latest phase: if true earliest evidence for animal domestication
Beginning of public space and special structures
Nevalı Çori (ca. 8600-7900 BC)
German rescue excavation of early 1990’s
Pre-pottery Neolithic site with domestic and monumental public architecture
For the first time monumental sculpture discovered
Subsistence largely hunting and gathering
Some agricultural production exists
     Reconstruction of Settlement II (Above)
    Settlement III (Above)
Göbeklitepe - Epi-Palaeolithic - PPN Site
Directed by K. Schmidt

Earliest known man-made monumental shrines in the world
T-shaped Pillars from Göbeklitepe