15 Kasım 2010 Pazartesi


The Kingly Period and the Republic
Two main topics:
1. The political system
2. The military expansion and its consequences
1)     The Roman Monarchy (753-509)
a)            Italy in the 8th century:
1.Old settlers : Sabines, Samnites, Latins.
2.New comers:  Etruscans, Greeks.
 b)    Roman kingdom:
·        A monarchy (king and a council of nobles):  
·        Almost a caste system:  the Patricians (= nobles) versus the Plebeians (the rest of the society)
  In the 6th century, Etruscan kings ruled Rome. But in 509, the Roman people revolted, expulsed the Etruscan king and dismantled the monarchy.
2)     The Roman Republic
a) The political system

·        2 Consuls, elected for one year + other officials (such as proconsul, dictator)
·        Directed government and army.
            Aristocratic component:
·        Senate
·        Could pass laws
·        Controlled foreign affairs.
Democratic component:
·           People’s assemblies such as Plebeian Council
·            Approved/rejected laws
·            Tribune could veto actions of executive officials.

→ The Roman Republic was not a democracy, rather an oligarchic system mixed with some democratic elements. Plebeians obtained their rights by struggling during decades against the Patricians ( the Struggle of Orders). There was no written Constitution but in 450, the first Roman legislation was written down (the 12 Tables).

b)     The military expansion and its consequences
·      Expansion step-by-step:
-         Italy: the Etruscan ligue and the Greek cities are obliged to enter the Roman confederation  (3th c. BC)

-          Punic wars against Carthage and its leader, Hannibal. The Carthaginians were defeated in the 2th c. BC and Rome annexed NorthernAfrica and Southern Spain.

-         Macedonian wars: Rome fighted against the Macedonian forces  and managed to dominate all the Greek  peninsula by 146 BC.

-         Gaul: Annexed by Caesar in 52 BC

·      Social consequences of the expansion:
-         Rise of a new class: the Equestrians (or knights)
-         Rise of slaves (73: revolt of Spartacus)
-         Constitution of large estates (latifundia)/ poor peasants migrating to Rome

·      Attempts of reform:
-Tiberius Gracchus and Gaius Gracchus (proposed land reforms but were killed)
-Julius Caesar: alliance with Pompey and Crassus (= triumvirate) in 60BC against the Senate. After the conquest of Gaul, came back to Rome with his army and concentrated all the powers. Assassinated in -44.
→ Political and social crisis. Roman political system had to be reformed to respond the new challenges of expansion and integration.

Hiç yorum yok:

Yorum Gönder